The class IV semaphorin CD100/Sema4D differentially utilizes two distinct receptors: plexin-B1 in nonlymphoid tissues, such as brain and kidney, and CD72 in lymphoid tissues. We have generated CD100-deficient mice and demonstrated that they have functional defects in their immune system, without apparent abnormalities in other tissues. The number of CD5(+) B-1 cells was considerably decreased in the mutant mice, whereas conventional B cells and T cells appeared to develop normally. In vitro proliferative responses and immunoglobulin production were reduced in CD100-deficient B cells. The humoral immune response against a T cell-dependent antigen and in vivo priming of T cells were also defective in the mutant mice. These results demonstrate nonredundant and essential roles of CD100-CD72 interactions in the immune system.