Background: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in atherosclerosis and a useful model from which to study chronic inflammation. We compared monocyte function, lipid profiles and inflammatory markers in smokers and non-smokers, before and after oral ibuprofen intake. The adhesion of freshly isolated monocytes to native and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as well as superoxide anion (O2-) levels and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in resting and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated monocytes were determined.
Materials and methods: A group of nine smokers without any other coronary risk factor was compared with an age-matched group of 9 non-smokers. Tests were performed before and after a two-week course of oral ibuprofen (600 mg day-1).
Results: In smokers before ibuprofen, monocyte adhesion to native and TNFalpha-stimulated HUVEC was increased (P < 0001 and P < 0.01, respectively), and so were O2- levels in native and PMA-stimulated monocytes (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Ibuprofen reduced the adhesion of monocytes to native and stimulated HUVEC (P < 0.001) and O2- generation by resting and PMA-stimulated cells (P < 0.01) in both groups. H2O2 production by resting and PMA-stimulated monocytes was reduced in smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.01). Interestingly, ibuprofen increased HDL cholesterol levels in smokers (P < 0.01) and non-smokers (P < 0.001), and reduced the level of triglycerides in smokers (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Oral administration of ibuprofen reduced the adhesion of monocytes to HUVEC, suppressed oxidative stress and increased HDL cholesterol levels in smokers and non-smokers.