Defects in renewal and repair of ocular surface as a result of limbal stem cell deficiency are now known to cause varying ocular surface morbidity including persistent photophobia, repeated and persistent surface breakdown and overt conjunctivalisation of the cornea. Ocular conditions with abnormalities of ocular surface repair include pterygium, limbal tumours, aniridia, severe scarring following burns, cicatricial pemphigoid and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, sequelae of mustard gas exposure and Herpes simplex epithelial disease, radiation keratopathy, contact lens induced keratopathy, neuroparalytic keratitis and drug toxicity. Restoring ocular health in these eyes has traditionally been frustrating. An understanding of these intricate cell renewal and maintenance processes has spurred the evolution in recent years of new treatment methods for several blinding diseases of the anterior segment; many more exciting modalities are in the offing. However, there is inadequate awareness among ophthalmologists about the current principles of management of ocular surface disorders. The purpose of this article is to help elucidate the important principles and current treatment methods relevant to ocular surface disorders.