Objective: This paper reviews the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of pantoprazole in comparison with those of other available proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
Methods: Relevant English-language research and review articles were identified by database searches of MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and UnCover, and by examining the reference lists of the articles so identified. In selecting data for inclusion, the author gave preference to full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals.
Results: Like other PPIs, pantoprazole exerts its pharmacodynamic actions by binding to the proton pump (H+,K+ -adenosine triphosphatase) in the parietal cells, but, compared with other PPIs, its binding may be more specific for the proton pump. Pantoprazole is well absorbed when administered as an enteric-coated, delayed-release tablet, with an oral bioavailability of approximately 77%. It is hepatically metabolized via cytochrome P2C19 to hydroxypantoprazole, an inactive metabolite that subsequently undergoes sulfate conjugation. The elimination half-life ranges from 0.9 to 1.9 hours and is independent of dose. Pantoprazole has similar efficacy to other PPIs in the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers, as well as erosive esophagitis, and as part of triple-drug regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric mucosa. It is well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects being headache, diarrhea, flatulence, and abdominal pain. In clinical studies, it has been shown to have no interactions with various other agents, including carbamazepine, cisapride, cyclosporine, digoxin, phenytoin, theophylline, and warfarin.
Conclusions: Pantoprazole appears to be as effective as other PPIs. Its low potential for drug interactions may give it an advantage in patients taking other drugs.