Object: The purpose of this study was to delineate the long-term natural history of hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (MMD).
Methods: A retrospective review was conducted among 42 patients suffering from hemorrhagic MMD who had been treated conservatively without bypass surgery. The group included four patients who had undergone indirect bypass surgery after an episode of rebleeding. The follow-up period averaged 80.6 months. The clinical features of the first bleeding episode and repeated bleeding episodes were analyzed to determine the risk factors of rebleeding and poor outcome. Intraventricular hemorrhage with or without intracerebral hemorrhage was a dominant finding on computerized tomography scans during the first bleeding episode in 29 cases (69%). During the follow-up period, 14 patients experienced a second episode of bleeding, which occurred 10 years or longer after the original hemorrhage in five cases (35.7%). The annual rebleeding rate was 7.09%/person/year. The second bleeding episode was characterized by a change in which hemisphere bleeding occurred in three cases (21.4%) and by the type of bleeding in seven cases (50%). After rebleeding the rate of good recovery fell from 45.5% to 21.4% and the mortality rate rose from 6.8% to 28.6%. Rebleeding and patient age were statistically significant risk factors of poor outcome. All four patients in whom there was indirect revascularization after the second bleeding episode experienced a repeated bleeding episode within 8 years.
Conclusions: The occurrence of rebleeding a long time after the first hemorrhagic episode was not uncommon. Furthermore, the change in which hemisphere and the type of bleeding that occurred after the first episode suggested the difficulty encountered in the prevention of repeated hemorrhage.