Herpes simplex virus infection induces replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

Virology. 2000 Dec 20;278(2):534-40. doi: 10.1006/viro.2000.0667.


Genital herpes has been associated with increased efficiency of the sexual transmission and enhanced replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study we demonstrate that exposure to infectious or heat-inactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or 2 virions increases HIV-1 expression in macrophages at least in part by inducing NF-kappaB activity. Neutralizing antibodies to the HSV glycoprotein gB or gD markedly attenuated these virion-mediated effects on HIV-1 expression in macrophages. Thus HSV infection of macrophages that reside in genital mucosal tissue induces HIV-1 replication in these cells. Our study may have implications for the management of patients who are coinfected with the two viruses.

MeSH terms

  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / virology*
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • HIV Long Terminal Repeat
  • HIV Seronegativity / immunology*
  • HIV Seropositivity / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / physiology*
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human / physiology*
  • Herpesvirus 2, Human / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation*
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / virology*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Reference Values
  • Virus Replication*


  • NF-kappa B