A review is presented of the emerging problem of candidal colonization regarding epidemiological and etiological factors. In recent years a change in epidemiological trends has been observed. Vaginal candidosis seems to show a higher frequency to recur and a significant increase in infections caused by non albicans species of candidas has been stated. The three stage mechanisms of adhesion, blastopore germination and epithelium invasion are emphasized. There is a balance between candidal organisms and vaginal defense factors (lactobacilli, cellular and humoral immunity) controlling and limiting fungal growth. Vaginitis appears because of an increased number or an enhanced virulence of candidas. In some other patients, a decreased vaginal defense mechanism is a determinant factor. There are still a number of factors involved in clinical candidal vulvovaginitis that need to be clarified.