The widespread use of antiretroviral agents (ARVs) and the growing occurrence of HIV strains resistant to these drugs have given rise to serious concerns regarding the transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons. Plasma viral RNA from 80 individuals newly infected between 1997 and 1999 was genotyped by automated sequencing to analyze the profile of viruses resistant to nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs) and to protease inhibitors (PIs). The prevalence of mutations that conferred primary resistance to PIs (L10I, D30Y, V82A, L90M) was 15% of the cohort. RT genotypic variants, associated with high-level resistance to ARVs, were observed in 21% of individuals, including NRTI, NNRTI and multidrug (MDR) resistance in 6, 5, and 10% of cases, respectively. The phenotypic susceptibility of viral isolates to ARVs was also assayed and showed transmission of high-level resistance to ZDV, 3TC, and PIs in those individuals with MDR. The transmission of drug-resistant HIV genotypic variants is a serious problem that merits further attention by public health officials, virologists, and clinicians.