Cross-beam vector Doppler ultrasound for angle-independent velocity measurements

Ultrasound Med Biol. 2000 Oct;26(8):1213-35. doi: 10.1016/s0301-5629(00)00287-8.


Combining Doppler measurements taken along multiple intersecting ultrasound (US) beams is one approach to obtaining angle-independent velocity. Over 30 laboratories and companies have developed such cross-beam systems since the 1970s. Early designs focused on multiple single-element probes. In the late 1980s, combining multiple color Doppler images acquired from linear-array transducers became a popular modality. This was further expanded to include beam steering and the use of subapertures. Often, with each change in design, came a new twist to calculating the velocity. This article presents a review of most proposed cross-beam systems published to date. The emphasis is on the basic design, the approach used to determine the angle-independent velocity, the advantages of the design, and the disadvantages of the design. From this, requirements needed to convert the idea of angle-independent vector Doppler into a commercial system are suggested.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Rheology
  • Transducers
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler / instrumentation
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods*