PDE11A is a dual-substrate, cAMP and cGMP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). Presently four unique variants carrying distinct GAF sequences in the N-terminal region have been identified. While human PDE11A3 and PDE11A4 are known to be specifically expressed in testis and prostate, respectively, PDE11A1 was mainly detected in skeletal muscle. The human PDE11A gene was investigated and revealed to span > 300 kb, contain 23 exons and be mapped on chromosome 2q31. The transcription start sites of PDE11A1, PDE11A3 and PDE11A4 were determined, and the promoter sequences were revealed. Although 5' flanking genomic regions of PDE11A1 and PDE11A3 had a consensus TATA motif, that of PDE11A4 was a TATA-less but contained CCAAT box and Sp1-binding sequence. Interestingly, we found that the exon 2 sequence for N-terminal region of PDE11A3 encoded an N-terminal sequence of the cytochrome c pseudogene in an alternate reading frame, and that C-terminal region of the cytochrome c pseudogene in intron 2 was disrupted by the insertion of Alu repetitive sequence. Furthermore, we examined the exon-intron organization of the PDE2A gene and compared the exon organization among GAF-PDE family. The exon organization of the PDE11A catalytic domain was very similar to those of PDE5A and PDE6B. However, other GAF-PDEs, PDE2A and PDE10A, displayed different exon organization from PDE11A although these three PDEs are similar in their amino-acid sequences to each other. The findings suggested that PDE11A has a common ancestral gene with PDE5A and PDE6s, whereas PDE2A and PDE10A are generated separately from these three GAF-PDEs.