Loss of nuclear localization of the S100C protein in immortalized human fibroblasts

Radiat Res. 2001 Jan;155(1 Pt 2):208-214. doi: 10.1667/0033-7587(2001)155[0208:lonlot]2.0.co;2.


It is well known that cancer develops through a multistep process. In vitro transformation studies of normal human cells have shown that the immortalization step is critical for neoplastic transformation of cells. Furthermore, studies of cell fusion between normal and immortalized cells have indicated that the normal phenotype is dominant and the immortal phenotype is recessive. Thus we looked for cellular proteins that were down-regulated in immortalized human cells by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to elucidate the mechanisms of immortalization of human cells. We found that the S100C protein was down-regulated in immortalized cells. This protein was localized in the cytoplasm of cells at the semiconfluent stage, while at the confluent stage it moved into the nuclei of normal cells but not into those of immortalized cells. Microinjection of an S100C antibody into normal confluent cells diminished the level of nuclear S100C protein, resulting in DNA synthesis. Taken together, loss of nuclear localization of the S100C protein, which may be related to DNA synthesis, is thought to be one of the mechanisms of immortalization.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Antibodies / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Transformed
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Fibroblasts / cytology
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism*
  • Gene Products, tat / genetics
  • Gene Products, tat / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • S100 Proteins / genetics
  • S100 Proteins / immunology
  • S100 Proteins / metabolism*


  • Antibodies
  • Gene Products, tat
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • S100 Proteins
  • S100A11 protein, human