In response to nitrogen limitation, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo a dimorphic transition to filamentous pseudohyphal growth. At least two signaling pathways regulate filamentation. One involves components of the MAP kinase cascade that also regulates mating of haploid cells. The second involves a nutrient-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor that signals via an unusual G(alpha) protein, cAMP and protein kinase A. Recent studies reveal crosstalk between these pathways during pseudohyphal growth. Related MAP kinase and cAMP pathways regulate filamentation and virulence of human and plant fungal pathogens, and represent novel targets for antifungal drug design.