This review concentrates on some of the recent discoveries and future questions relevant to the development of the neuroendocrine luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) cells. Neuroendocrine LHRH cells originate outside the central nervous system, in the nasal placode, and thereafter migrate into the forebrain during prenatal development. It is this population of LHRH cells that is responsible for reproductive function, becoming integral members of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis postnatally. Disruption of the development of this system results in reproductive dysfunction. Increasing our understanding of LHRH neuroendocrine cells establishes conditions where we can look with greater precision at the mechanisms controlling reproductive development, both activation and failure. In addition, the ability to manipulate the molecular and cellular biology of the LHRH system opens the route to understanding critical neurobiological issues such as phenotypic commitment, axonal path finding and mechanisms involved in neuronal migration. Each of the topics is discussed in turn and potential mechanisms controlling the development of the neuroendocrine LHRH system are indicated.