Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in goldfish Carassius auratus during anoxia and reoxygenation

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Jan;280(1):R100-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.2001.280.1.R100.


The purpose of this work was to evaluate the response of the antioxidant system of goldfish Carassius auratus during anoxia and reoxygenation. The exposure of goldfish to 8 h of anoxia induced a 14% decrease in total glutathione levels in the kidney, although the liver, brain, and muscle were unaffected. Anoxia also resulted in increases in the activities of liver catalase, brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and brain glutathione peroxidase (by 38, 26, and 79%, respectively) and a decrease in kidney catalase activity (by 17.5%). After 14 h of reoxygenation, liver catalase and brain glutathione peroxidase activities remained higher than controls and several other tissue-specific changes occurred in enzyme activities. Superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by anoxia and reoxygenation. The levels of conjugated dienes, as indicators of lipid peroxidation, increased by 114% in liver after 1 h of reoxygenation and by 75% in brain after 14 h of reoxygenation. Lipid peroxidation was unaffected in kidney and depressed during anoxia and reoxygenation (by 44-61%) in muscle. Regulation of the goldfish antioxidant system during anoxia may constitute a biochemical mechanism that minimizes oxidative stress following reoxygenation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Brain / enzymology
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Female
  • Free Radicals / metabolism
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Goldfish / metabolism*
  • Hypoxia / metabolism*
  • Kidney / enzymology
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Lipid Peroxidation / physiology
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal / enzymology
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Oxygen / pharmacology*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Species Specificity
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Free Radicals
  • Proteins
  • Catalase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione
  • Oxygen