Purpose: To determine if tobacco or alcohol consumption is associated with vision loss among sibships harboring pathogenic mitochondrial mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.
Methods: Retrospective case-control study with questionnaires obtained from both affected and unaffected siblings from 80 sibships with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Sibships harbored molecularly confirmed mitochondrial DNA mutations at nucleotide positions 11778 (63), 14484 (10), and 3460 (7). Exposure in affected individuals was calculated based on reported consumption before vision loss.
Results: For male probands (67 sibships), the recurrence risk within a sibship was 10.3% (eight of 78) for males and 3.1% (three of 98) for females. For female probands (13 sibships), the recurrence risk within a sibship was 17.6% (three of 17) for males and 0% (zero of 22) for females. Greater risk of vision loss was associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 6.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.96 to 14.84; P =.00001) and harboring a 3460 or 14484 in comparison with the 11778 mutation (OR = 2.071; 95% CI = 1.19 to 3.58; P =.0095). No significant association of maximal intensity of smoking or cumulative smoking, whether light or heavy, with vision loss was observed. Light (OR = 0. 31; 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.56; P =.0001) and heavy alcohol consumers (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.58; P =.0011) were less likely to be affected than individuals who did not consume alcohol after adjusting for age, sex, and mutation. In a categorical analysis of sibships with the 3460 or 14484 mutation, no relationship of vision loss with tobacco or alcohol consumption was observed.
Conclusion: Unlike previous studies, the present study calculated exposure based on self-reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol before vision loss. No significant deleterious association between tobacco or alcohol consumption and vision loss among individuals harboring Leber hereditary optic neuropathy mutations was observed. Tobacco and alcohol do not appear to promote vision loss in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.