The COG database: new developments in phylogenetic classification of proteins from complete genomes

Nucleic Acids Res. 2001 Jan 1;29(1):22-8. doi: 10.1093/nar/29.1.22.


The database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), which represents an attempt on a phylogenetic classification of the proteins encoded in complete genomes, currently consists of 2791 COGs including 45 350 proteins from 30 genomes of bacteria, archaea and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/COG). In addition, a supplement to the COGs is available, in which proteins encoded in the genomes of two multicellular eukaryotes, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and shared with bacteria and/or archaea were included. The new features added to the COG database include information pages with structural and functional details on each COG and literature references, improvements of the COGNITOR program that is used to fit new proteins into the COGs, and classification of genomes and COGs constructed by using principal component analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Archaea / genetics
  • Bacteria / genetics
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics
  • Databases, Factual*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics
  • Genome
  • Information Storage and Retrieval
  • Internet
  • Phylogeny
  • Proteins* / classification
  • Proteins* / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Proteins