A prospective randomized, comparative, open-label trial of the safety and efficacy of paromomycin (aminosidine) plus sodium stibogluconate versus sodium stibogluconate alone for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Jul-Aug 2000;94(4):429-31. doi: 10.1016/s0035-9203(00)90130-5.


Response to treatment with organic pentavalent antimonials, the standard first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), has been decreasing since their introduction into India. Combining sodium stibogluconate (SB) with paromomycin (PM) may be an efficient alternative to single-agent therapy. This trial was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of PM 12 or 18 mg/kg daily plus SB 20 mg/kg daily for 21 days compared to SB alone for 30 days. One hundred and fifty patients were randomly assigned in 1996 to 1 of the 3 treatments and followed-up for 180 days. At the end of treatment, 49 of 52 patients receiving PM12 + SB, 46 of 48 receiving PM18 + SB, and 27 of 49 patients receiving SB alone, were cured. During follow-up there was 1 relapse in each of the treatment groups, giving final cure rates of 48 of 52 (92.3%) for PM12 + SB, 45 of 48 (93.8%) for PM18 + SB, and 26 of 49 (53.1%) for SB. PM plus SB for 21 days at either 12 or 18 mg/kg daily was significantly more effective than SB alone for 30 days (chi 2 P < 0.001). One patient (SB alone) had experienced a serious adverse event: cardiotoxicity at day 8 (myocarditis and ECG changes) which caused withdrawal from the study. Only 19 of 100 patients enrolled in the PM treatment arms had a complete audiogram series conducted thus making it difficult to assess oto-toxicity. PM 12 or 18 mg/kg daily plus a standard dose of SB for 21 days was statistically more effective than SB in producing a final cure for patients with VL in Bihar, India.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antimony Sodium Gluconate / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Paromomycin / therapeutic use*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Paromomycin
  • Antimony Sodium Gluconate