The correlation between the prospective course of proprioceptive improvement and knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was investigated in 38 patients. Proprioception, on the basis of the patient's capacity to reposition the limb accurately, was evaluated at 3-month intervals for 24 months after hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Knee stability was evaluated concurrently with a KT-2000 knee arthrometer. Thirty patients experienced improvement in postoperative position sense in at least one of the examinations, although eight patients had no improvement at any time. Of the 30 patients who had improvement, 28 maintained improved position sense from 18 months to the final followup. Thirty patients maintained significantly better knee stability for a postoperative period of at least 24 months. These results indicated that a minimum of 18 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may be needed for complete restoration of the proprioceptive function in knees, although the mean position sense in all patients gradually improved from 9 months. Improvement in postoperative knee stability may have facilitated recovery of proprioception.