Experimental evolution recapitulates natural evolution

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000 Nov 29;355(1403):1677-84. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2000.0731.


Genomes of the closely related bacteriophages phiX174 and S13 are 5386 bases long and differ at 114 nucleotides, affecting 28 amino acids. Both parental phages were adapted to laboratory culture conditions in replicate lineages and analysed for nucleotide changes that accumulated experimentally Of the 126 experimental substitutions, 90% encoded amino-acid changes, and 62% of the substitutions occurred in parallel in more than one experimental line. Furthermore, missense changes at 12 of the experimental sites were at residues differing between the parental phages; in ten cases the phiX174 experimental lineages were convergent with the S13 parent, or vice versa, at both the nucleotide and amino-acid levels. Convergence at a site was even obtained in both directions in three cases. These results point to a limited number of pathways taken during evolution in these viruses, and also raise the possibility that much of the amino-acid variation in the natural evolution of these viruses has been selected.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriophage phi X 174 / genetics*
  • Directed Molecular Evolution*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Gene Silencing
  • Genetic Variation
  • Mutation, Missense