Two ftsZ homologues were isolated from the unicellular primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae (CmftsZ1 and CmftsZ2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmftsZ1 is most closely related to the ftsZ genes of alpha-Proteobacteria, suggesting that it is a mitochondrial-type ftsZ gene, whereas CmftsZ2 is most closely related to the ftsZ genes of cyanobacteria, suggesting that it is a plastid-type ftsZ gene. Southern analysis indicates that CmftsZ1 and CmftsZ2 are both single-copy genes located on chromosome XIV in the C. merolae genome. Northern analysis revealed that both CmftsZ1 and CmftsZ2 are transcribed, and accumulate specifically before cell and organelle division. The results of Western analysis suggest that CmFtsZ1 is localized in mitochondria.