Putative prostate cancer susceptibility loci have recently been identified by genetic linkage analysis on chromosomes 1q24-25 (HPC1). 1q44.243 (PCaP), and Xq27-28 (HPCX). In order to estimate the genetic linkage in Icelandic prostate cancer families, we genotyped 241 samples from 87 families with eleven markers in the HPC1 region, six markers at PCaP, and eight at HPCX. Concurrently, we assessed allelic imbalance at the HPC1 and PCaP loci in selected tumors from the patients. For each of the candidate regions, the combined parametric and non-parametric LOD scores were strongly negative. Evidence for linkage allowing for genetic heterogeneity was also insignificant for all the regions. The results were negative irrespective of whether calculations were performed for the whole material or for a selected set of early age at onset families. The prevalence of allelic imbalance was relatively low in both the HPC1 (0%-9%) and PCaP (5%-20%) regions and was not elevated in tumors from positively linked families. Our studies indicate that the putative cancer susceptibility genes at chromosomes 1q24-25, 1q44.2-43, and Xq27-28 are unlikely to contribute significantly to hereditary prostate cancer in Iceland and that selective loss of the HPC1 and PCaP loci is a relatively rare somatic event in prostate cancers.