Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength with age, is becoming recognized as a major cause of disability and morbidity in the elderly population. Sarcopenia is part of normal aging and does not require a disease to occur, although muscle wasting is accelerated by chronic diseases. Sarcopenia is thought to have multiple causes, although the relative importance of each is not clear. Neurological, metabolic, hormonal, nutritional, and physical-activity-related changes with age are likely to contribute to the loss of muscle mass. In this review, we discuss current concepts of the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of sarcopenia.