Molecular biology of the VEGF and the VEGF receptor family

Semin Thromb Hemost. 2000;26(5):561-9. doi: 10.1055/s-2000-13213.

Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the founding member of a still growing family of endothelial cell growth factors. The diverse functions of VEGF and its homologues (PIGF, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGF-E) can be explained by their differential binding to the three signaling VEGF receptors. The VEGF family members PIGF and VEGF-B with exclusive binding capacities to the VEGFR-1 can influence monocyte activation and differentiation. The VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 binding VEGF homologues, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are mitogens for both vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The orf virus encoded VEGF-E homologue binds and activates only the VEGFR-2 and thus may be the prototype of a vascular endothelial cell-specific growth factor. Further specific activities of VEGF and its homologues result from receptor-specific signaling and differential expression of ligands or receptors. A naturally occurring soluble form of the VEGFR-1 suggests a regulatory role for this receptor. Finally, the production and activation of factors involved in the coagulation/fibrinolytic system provide further evidence for the hypothesis that processes of hemostasis are involved in angiogenesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / physiology*
  • Fibrinolysis
  • Humans
  • Lymphokines / metabolism
  • Lymphokines / physiology*
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / physiology*
  • Receptors, Growth Factor / physiology*
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

Substances

  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Lymphokines
  • Receptors, Growth Factor
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor