Throughout the years, most researchers have used continuous cell lines as in vitro models to evaluate the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Unfortunately, the most commonly used monocytoid malignant cells have not been shown to adequately mimic primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, at least with respect to HIV-1 infection. The Mono Mac 1 cell line has been defined as a model system for studying biochemical, immunological, and genetic functions of human cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this study, we have investigated whether Mono Mac 1 represents an in vitro culture system for HIV-1 infection. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that Mono Mac 1 are positive for the HIV-1 primary receptor (CD4), as well as for the coreceptors (CXCR4, CCR5, and CCR3). Infectivity experiments conducted with recombinant luciferase-encoding and fully infectious viruses demonstrated that Mono Mac 1 can support a highly productive infection with both macrophage- and dual-tropic isolates of HIV-1. Furthermore, differentiation of such cells led to a marked increase in virus production. Data from semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and mobility shift assays indicated that enhanced virus production in differentiated Mono Mac 1 cells was most likely related to an increase in nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Mono Mac 1 can thus be considered as a human monocytoid cell line representing a proper in vitro system for studying the complex interactions between HIV-1 and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.