Clinical and economic impact of ambulatory care clinical pharmacists in management of dyslipidemia in older adults: the IMPROVE study. Impact of Managed Pharmaceutical Care on Resource Utilization and Outcomes in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers

Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Dec;20(12):1508-16. doi: 10.1592/phco.20.19.1508.34852.


We examined the impact of ambulatory care clinical pharmacist interventions on clinical and economic outcomes of 208 patients with dyslipidemia and 229 controls treated at nine Veterans Affairs medical centers. This was a randomized, controlled trial involving patients at high risk of drug-related problems. Only those with dyslipidemia are reported here. In addition to usual medical care, clinical pharmacists were responsible for providing pharmaceutical care for patients in the intervention group. The control group did not receive pharmaceutical care. Seventy-two percent of the intervention group and 70% of controls required secondary prevention according to the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Significantly more patients in the intervention group had a fasting lipid profile compared with controls (p=0.021). The absolute change in total cholesterol (17.7 vs 7.4 mg/dl, p=0.028) and low-density lipoprotein (23.4 vs 12.8 mg/dl, p=0.042) was greater in the intervention than in the control group. There were no differences in patients achieving goal lipid values or in overall costs despite increased visits to pharmacists. Ambulatory care clinical pharmacists can significantly improve dyslipidemia in a practice setting designed to manage many medical and drug-related problems.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Ambulatory Care / economics
  • Ambulatory Care / methods*
  • Drug Monitoring / economics
  • Female
  • Hospitals, Veterans
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / blood
  • Hyperlipidemias / drug therapy*
  • Hyperlipidemias / economics
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood
  • Male
  • Pharmacists* / economics
  • Pharmacy Service, Hospital / economics
  • Pharmacy Service, Hospital / methods*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors


  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Lipoproteins, LDL