In the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, the entire paleocortical region (PCx) subjacent to the rhinal indentation is composed of three layers and occupies up to two thirds of the lateral hemisphere. A clear differentiation of PCx into its presumed constituents, the piriform cortex and the entorhinal cortex, as seen in other mammals, has not been obtained so far. To gain insight into location and intrinsic organization of these areas in a basal placental mammal we investigated the tenrec's PCx using cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitectural criteria (zinc, acetylcholinesterase, NADPh-diaphorase, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin) and analysed its connections with the olfactory bulb. The layers 2 and 3 of the tenrec's PCx differed from the corresponding layers in the rat. The layer 2 showed a complex distribution of corticobulbar cells but could not be subdivided, in contrast to layer 3. Additional cell groups in the depth of PCx were tentatively compared with subdivisions of the endopiriform region. The architectural and connectional features varied clearly along the rostrocaudal and dorso-ventral extents of PCx and gave hints for the presence of different paleocortical subdivisions. With the possible exception of an area located at the most caudal tip of the dorsomedial hemisphere, however, no conclusive evidence was obtained for the presence of a multilayered, entorhinal region. The bulbar projections to the PCx were very extensive and almost exclusively ipsilateral. The laterality of the projection is similar to that in higher mammals, but differs from that in the erinaceous hedgehog.