In humans, the kidneys filter approximately 180 g of D-glucose from plasma each day, and this is normally reabsorbed in the proximal tubules. Although the mechanism of reabsorption is well understood, Na(+)-glucose cotransport across the brush-border membrane and facilitated diffusion across the basolateral membrane, questions remain about the identity of the genes responsible for cotransport across the brush border. Genetic studies suggest that two different genes regulate Na(+)-glucose cotransport, and there is evidence from animal studies to suggest that the major bulk of sugar is reabsorbed in the convoluted proximal tubule by a low-affinity, high-capacity transporter and that the remainder is absorbed in the straight proximal tubule by a high-affinity, low-capacity transporter. There are at least three different candidates for these human renal Na(+)-glucose cotransporters. This review will focus on the structure-function relationships of these three transporters, SGLT1, SGLT2, and SGLT3.