In primary hyperaldosteronism, discriminating bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) from an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is important because adrenalectomy, which is usually curative in APA, is seldom effective in BAH. We analyzed the results from our most recent 7-yr series to evaluate the predictive value of preoperative noninvasive tests compared with adrenal vein sampling (AVS). Forty-eight patients with hypertensive hyperaldosteronism underwent bedside testing, computed tomography (CT) imaging, and AVS. Those in whom the results of AVS indicated APA underwent adrenalectomy. Twelve (30%) and 14 (34%) of 41 patients with APA had paradoxical falls with ambulation in plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and 18-hydroxycorticosterone (18-OH-B), respectively. Twenty-nine (70%) and 26 (65%) APA patients had a rise in PAC and 18-OH-B, respectively, as did all 8 BAH patients. Significant identifiers of BAH were supine PAC values less than 15 ng/dL (P: = 0.04), an increase greater than 60% (P: = 0.02) in PAC with ambulation, and supine 18-OH-B values less than 60 ng/dL (P: = 0.04). CT imaging alone was not predictive for BAH or APA. In our population, patients with a positive bedside test result (e.g. a fall in PAC and/or 18-OH-B) and a unilateral adrenal nodule on CT (10 of 41 patients) could have proceeded directly to adrenalectomy for APA. However, a positive bedside test result with a negative CT or a negative bedside test result regardless of CT findings required AVS to confirm the diagnosis and site of disease.