The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is high in patients on renal replacement therapy; therefore, reliable noninvasive screening tests are needed. We retrospectively determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) for a history of chest pain, resting and exercise electrocardiography (ECG), thallium dipyridamole scintigraphy, and echocardiography in 42 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis and 42 patients after renal transplantation who also underwent coronary angiography. In addition, the prognostic power of each test for the occurrence of a cardiovascular event after angiography (therapeutic intervention, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) was evaluated during a follow-up of 37 months. Forty-three patients had significant CAD on angiography. Angina pectoris had a sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 66%, corresponding to a positive LR of 1.9 and a negative LR of 0.5. A variable number of patients underwent noninvasive tests before angiography. Results were similar in patients undergoing hemodialysis and after renal transplantation and in patients with or without angina pectoris. Exercise ECG could not be performed in the majority of patients, and resting ECG (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 52%; corresponding to a positive LR of 1.4 and negative LR of 0.6) and scintigraphy (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 37%; positive LR, 1.3; negative LR, 0.5) in patients on renal replacement therapy were not useful for the diagnosis of CAD. Angina also markedly increased the relative odds for the occurrence of a cardiovascular event during follow-up (relative odds, 4.6) compared with other noninvasive tests. Angina pectoris had the best informational and prognostic value of noninvasive screening methods, but angiography seems to be the only method to clearly document CAD in patients on renal replacement therapy.