There is increasing awareness of the significant and varied actions of endogenous androgens in women, and acknowledgement that women might experience symptoms secondary to androgen deficiency. There is also substantial evidence that prudent testosterone replacement is effective in relieving both the physical and psychological symptoms of androgen insufficiency in clinically affected women. However, our understanding of the actions of testosterone in women is incomplete, with no consensus as to what constitutes either biochemical or clinical testosterone deficiency. The focus of the limited research into testosterone replacement has been on sexuality, primarily sexual desire. However, the influence of testosterone on mood and well being also requires further exploration.