Thymosin alpha 1 in the treatment of cancer: from basic research to clinical application

Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000 Dec;22(12):1067-76. doi: 10.1016/s0192-0561(00)00075-8.


Many studies have explored the effects of immunotherapy, alone or in combination with conventional therapies, on both experimental and human cancers. Evidence has been provided that combined treatments with thymosin alpha 1 (T alpha 1) and low doses of interferon (IFN) or interleukin (IL)-2 are highly effective in restoring several immune responses depressed by tumor growth and/or cytostatic drugs. In addition, when combined with specific chemotherapy, they are able to increase the anti-tumor effect of chemotherapy while markedly reducing the general toxicity of the treatment. The advantages of using this combined chemo-immunotherapeutic approach in experimental and human cancers are reviewed in this issue.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use*
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Thymalfasin
  • Thymosin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Thymosin / pharmacology
  • Thymosin / therapeutic use


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Thymosin
  • Thymalfasin