In the present study, the fractal dimension (FD), a concept to determine morphological complexity, was applied to morphological estimation of animal and human senile plaque using a computer-aided method. The FDs of mature plaque in a 17-year-old dog were significantly higher than those of diffuse plaque in 11- to 16-year-old dogs. In both types of plaque, the FD tended to increase as the size expanded and there was a significant difference between the slope values of the approximate line for diffuse and mature plaque. In humans, there was also a significant difference in FD value between diffuse and mature plaque. No significant differences were observed between the two types of plaque in a bear or a cynomolgus monkey. The FD of feline diffuse plaque was significantly lower than that of a camel, bear and monkey. These results indicated that the diffuse and mature plaque of the dog might form in a different manner, and similar events may occur in human senile plaque formation. In addition, specific shapes and different FD values of the diffuse plaque among animals suggested that the original conditions for plaque formation would be different.