The objective of this article is to review the literature regarding the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in bottle-fed infants compared to those that are breastfed. A meta-analysis and qualitative literature review were performed. Cohort and case-control studies were included if they met a minimum SIDS definition and presented data allowing calculation of an odds ratio (OR). Twenty-three studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies were heterogeneous, and a majority (14) were of "fair" or "poor" quality. Crude ORs from 19 individual studies favored breastfeeding as protective against SIDS. The combined analysis indicated that bottle-fed infants were twice as likely to die from SIDS (pooled OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.66-2.68). The results of the analysis show that there is an association between bottle-feeding and SIDS, but this may be related to confounding variables.