Basketball is played by millions of athletes throughout the world and is the most popular team sport in American high schools. Basketball is the leading cause of sports-related injury in the United States. Acute basketball injuries most often involve the extremities, especially the hands, wrists, ankles, and knees. This article reviews the history, epidemiology, and common injury patterns that occur in this sport. We include several case reports to emphasize diagnostic dilemmas frequently encountered by emergency physicians.