Cloninger (Cloninger CR. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. Science 1987: 236: 410-416) proposed three basic personality dimensions for temperament: novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. He suggested that novelty seeking primarily utilized dopamine pathways, harm avoidance utilized serotonin pathways, and reward dependence utilized norepinephrine pathways. Subsequently, one additional temperament dimension (persistence) and three character dimensions (cooperativeness, self-directedness, and self-transcendence) were added to form the temperament and character inventory (TCI). We have utilized a previously described multivariate analysis technique (Comings DE, Gade-Andavolu R, Gonzalez N et al. Comparison of the role of dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenergic genes in ADHD, ODD and conduct disorder. Multivariate regression analysis of 20 genes. Clin Genet 2000: 57: 178-196; Comings DD, Gade-Andavolu R, Gonzalez N et al. Multivariate analysis of associations of 42 genes in ADHD, ODD and conduct disorder. Clin Genet 2000: in press) to examine the relative role of 59 candidate genes in the seven TCI traits and test the hypothesis that specific personality traits were associated with specific genes. While there was some tendency for this to be true, a more important trend was the involvement of different ratios of functionally related groups of genes, and of different genotypes of the same genes, for different traits.