Biallelic inactivation of retinoic acid receptor beta2 gene by epigenetic change in breast cancer

Am J Pathol. 2001 Jan;158(1):299-303. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9440(10)63969-7.


A growing body of evidence supports the hypotheses that retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RAR beta2) is a tumor suppressor gene. Although the loss of RAR beta2 expression has been reported in many malignant tumors, including breast cancer, the molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. We hypothesized that loss of RAR beta2 activity could result from multiple factors, including epigenetic modification and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and LOH analysis, we found that biallelic inactivation via epigenetic changes of both maternal and paternal alleles, or epigenetic modification of one allele combined with genetic loss of the remaining allele, could completely suppress RAR beta2 expression in breast cancer. Thus, it is possible that substantial numbers of human cancers arise through suppressor gene silencing via epigenetic mechanisms that inactivate both alleles. Because of this, chromatin-remodeling drugs may provide a novel strategy for cancer prevention and treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles*
  • Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Azacitidine / pharmacology
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics
  • DNA Methylation / drug effects
  • DNA, Neoplasm / drug effects
  • DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism
  • Decitabine
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Gene Silencing
  • Humans
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Up-Regulation


  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • retinoic acid receptor beta
  • Decitabine
  • Azacitidine