Objective: To study if it was possible to move, by orthodontic means, a tooth into an area of the jaw that had been augmented with Bio-Oss.
Material and methods: 5 beagle dogs were used. The 1st, 2nd, and 4th mandibular premolars on each side were removed. The defect at the left 4th premolar site was filled with a biomaterial (Bio-Oss) while the corresponding defect in the right side was left for spontaneous healing. 3 months later, an orthodontic device was inserted in each side of the mandible. The device was designed to allow distal, bodily movement of the 3rd premolars. When the experimental teeth had been moved into the extraction sites of the 4th premolars, the animals were sacrificed and biopsies of the premolar-molar regions of the mandible sampled. The tissues were prepared for histological analysis using standard procedures. In the sections, 3 zones were identified: zone A=the bone tissue within the distal portion of the previous extraction site (4th premolar), zone B=the pressure side of the 3rd premolar, zone C=the tension side of the 3rd premolar. The area occupied by mineralized bone, Bio-Oss particles and bone marrow was determined by a point counting procedure. The width of the periodontal ligament as well as the percentage of the root surface (in zone B) that exhibited resorption was determined.
Results: The findings demonstrated that it was possible to move a tooth into an area of an alveolar ridge that 3 months previously had been augmented with a biomaterial. It was also demonstrated that 12 months after grafting, Bio-Oss particles remained as inactive filler material in the not utilized part of zone A. The biomaterial was not present in zone C but present in small amounts in zone B.
Conclusion: During the orthodontic tooth movement the graft material (Bio-Oss) was degraded and eliminated from the part of the alveolar ridge that was utilized for the experiment. In the non-utilized part of the ridge the biomaterial, however, remained as a seemingly inactive filler material.