Male breast cancer is a rare disorder, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic process. We genotyped 31 Jewish Israeli males with breast cancer for the predominant Jewish BRCA1 (185delAG, 5382InsC) and BRCA2 (6174delT) germline mutations: 11 individuals from high-risk families and 20 patients unselected for family history of cancer. Two patients of the high-risk group (18.2%) displayed germline mutations: one harbored the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation, and the other the 6174delT mutation in BRCA2. None of the unselected patients displayed any mutation. In 2 patients, complete mutation analysis of the BRCA2 gene did not reveal any disease-associated mutations. We conclude that the predominant Jewish germline mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2 contribute to male breast cancer in Israel, primarily in Ashkenazi individuals with a family history of cancer.