Primary anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is a rare malignancy in the lung. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma characteristically involves the lymph nodes or skin, with few reports from other sites. We studied the clinical and pathologic features of five cases of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma limited to the lungs. The patients were three women and two men aged 27 to 66 years (mean, 44.6 y) The tumors ranged in size from 1.1 to 5 cm. All patients were CD 30 (Ki-1) positive and CD 15 (LeuM-1) negative. Epithelial membrane antigen immunoreactivity was seen in two patients. Epstein-Barr virus was not detected by immunohistochemistry (four patients tested) or by polymerase chain reaction studies (three patients tested). The immunophenotypes were T cell (n = 3) and null (n = 2). Gene rearrangement studies supported the immunophenotypic findings. One patient who had underlying HIV infection died of infectious complications. One patient died at 6 months. Two patients developed recurrent disease and are alive after 42 and 51 months of follow-up. The remaining patient is alive at 8 years of follow-up without evidence of disease. ALCL can mimic metastatic or primary carcinoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of large cell neoplasms of the lung.