The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) outcome questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Swedish version evaluated in 176 patients

Acta Orthop Scand. 2000 Dec;71(6):613-8. doi: 10.1080/000164700317362262.


The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire is a self-administered region-specific outcome instrument developed to measure upper-extremity disability and symptoms. The DASH consists mainly of a 30-item disability/symptom scale. We performed cross-cultural adaptation of the DASH to Swedish, using a process that included double forward and backward translations, expert and lay review, as well as field-testing to achieve linguistic and conceptual equivalence. The Swedish version's reliability and validity were then evaluated in 176 patients with upper-extremity conditions. The patients completed the DASH and SF-12 generic health questionnaire before elective surgery or physical therapy. Internal consistency of the DASH was high (Cronbach alpha 0.96). Test-retest reliability, evaluated in a subgroup of 67 patients who completed the DASH on two occasions, with a median interval of 7 days, was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92). Construct validity was shown by a positive correlation of DASH scores with the SF-12 scores (worse upper-extremity disability correlating with worse general health), stronger correlation with the SF-12 physical than with the mental health component, correlation of worse DASH scores with worse self-rated global health, and ability to discriminate among conditions known to differ in severity. The Swedish version of the DASH is a reliable and valid instrument that can provide a standardized measure of patient-centered outcomes in upper-extremity musculoskeletal conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Humans
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Efficacy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Sweden