Objective: To describe the phenotype in 3 families with dominantly inherited cone and cone-rod dystrophy with mutations in guanylate cyclase activator 1A (GUCA1A), the gene-encoding guanylate cyclase activator protein-1 (GCAP-1).
Methods: Phenotypic characterization with psychophysical and electrophysiological evaluation and confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy was performed in 2 families with a Tyr99Cys mutation and 1 family with a Pro50Leu mutation. Haplotype analysis was performed in the families with Tyr99Cys mutation.
Results: The families with a Y99C mutation were shown to be ancestrally related. Decreased visual acuity and loss of color vision occurred after the age of 20 years, followed by progressive atrophy of the central 5 degrees to 10 degrees. Electrophysiological testing revealed generalized loss of cone function, with preservation of rod function. Abnormal rod and cone sensitivities were confined to the central 5 degrees to 10 degrees. Confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy imaging showed abnormalities of autofluorescence in early disease. Subjects with a Pro50Leu mutation demonstrated marked variability in expressivity from minimal abnormalities of macular function to cone-rod dystrophy.
Conclusions: The phenotype associated with the Y99C mutation in GUCA1A is distinctive, with little variation in expression. By contrast, that associated with the P50L mutation demonstrates variable expressivity.
Clinical relevance: Phenotype-genotype correlation in these 2 mutations demonstrates 2 different phenotypes.