We reviewed the utility of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the management of thyroid nodules in 41 children and adolescents (35 girls; mean age, 13.3 years). Cytologic findings were benign in 30, malignant in 2, suspicious in 6, and insufficient in 3. The malignancy rate was 5%, with no false-negative results. Diagnostic accuracy for FNAB was 87% and inter-observer reliability was 88%. FNAB is safe and highly accurate in the evaluation of thyroid nodules in childhood.