Context: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been established as a cause of cervical cancer. Epidemiologic studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis infection also confers increased risk for cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Whether this risk is serotype-specific is unknown.
Objective: To study the association between exposure to different C trachomatis serotypes and subsequent development of cervical SCC.
Design and setting: Longitudinal, nested case-control study within a cohort of 530 000 women who provided samples to serum banks in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The data files were linked to respective national cancer registries.
Subjects: One hundred twenty-eight women who had developed invasive cervical SCC at least 12 months following serum donation. Each case had 3 matched controls.
Main outcome measure: Risk for the development of cervical SCC by IgG antibodies to 10 different C trachomatis serotypes, adjusted for antibodies to HPV types 16, 18, and 33 and for serum cotinine levels.
Results: Of specific C trachomatis serotypes, serotype G was most strongly associated with SCC (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1. 6-27.0). Other serotypes associated with SCC were I (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.0) and D (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6). Presence of serum IgG antibodies to more than 1 serotype increased the adjusted ORs for SCC (P<.001 for trend).
Conclusions: Chlamydia trachomatis serotype G is most strongly associated with subsequent development of cervical SCC. Increasing numbers of exposures to different C trachomatis serotypes also increases risk. Our results strengthen the evidence that there is a link between past C trachomatis infection and cervical SCC.