Purpose: To determine the intraocular pressure (IOP) of the sample, to observe if the IOP was modified by different variables and to establish the prevalence of occult glaucoma and its types.
Methods: 455 volunteers without known ocular pathology were examined. Their medical history was obtained, their IOP measured by applanation tonometry and their disc cup was examined by direct ophthalmoscopy. The participants with IOP >21 mmHg, differences in IOP >4 mmHg between eyes, cup/disc ratio >0.5 or disc asymmetry >0.2 were referred to the hospital for a more complete ophthalmic examination, including a visual field.
Results: The mean IOP of the population was 17.05 +/- 0.2 mm Hg and showed variations with age and sex. The maximun IOP was obtained in the fifth decade and the minimum in the eighth decade, although there were variations in the IOP with sex. The mean IOP was higher in women, in moderately obese subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the previous 5 years or arterial hypertension diagnosed in the previous 10 years. We found 7 cases of glaucoma: five chronic open angle glaucomas, one normotensive glaucoma and one pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, and 29 cases of ocular hypertension.
Conclusions: The IOP of the population varied with age, sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. The prevalence of occult glaucoma and ocular hypertension was 1.54% and 6.37%, respectively.