The PSI-BLAST algorithm has been acknowledged as one of the most powerful tools for detecting remote evolutionary relationships by sequence considerations only. This has been demonstrated by its ability to recognize remote structural homologues and by the greatest coverage it enables in annotation of a complete genome. Although recognizing the correct fold of a sequence is of major importance, the accuracy of the alignment is crucial for the success of modeling one sequence by the structure of its remote homologue. Here we assess the accuracy of PSI-BLAST alignments on a stringent database of 123 structurally similar, sequence-dissimilar pairs of proteins, by comparing them to the alignments defined on a structural basis. Each protein sequence is compared to a nonredundant database of the protein sequences by PSI-BLAST. Whenever a pair member detects its pair-mate, the positions that are aligned both in the sequential and structural alignments are determined, and the alignment sensitivity is expressed as the percentage of these positions out of the structural alignment. Fifty-two sequences detected their pair-mates (for 16 pairs the success was bi-directional when either pair member was used as a query). The average percentage of correctly aligned residues per structural alignment was 43.5+/-2.2%. Other properties of the alignments were also examined, such as the sensitivity vs. specificity and the change in these parameters over consecutive iterations. Notably, there is an improvement in alignment sensitivity over consecutive iterations, reaching an average of 50.9+/-2.5% within the five iterations tested in the current study.