14-3-3 proteins: regulation of subcellular localization by molecular interference

Cell Signal. 2000 Dec;12(11-12):703-9. doi: 10.1016/s0898-6568(00)00131-5.


14-3-3 family of proteins plays a key regulatory role in signal transduction, checkpoint control, apoptotic, and nutrient-sensing pathways. 14-3-3 proteins act by binding to partner proteins, and this binding often leads to the altered subcellular localization of the partner. 14-3-3 proteins promote the cytoplasmic localization of many binding partners, including the pro-apoptotic protein BAD and the cell cycle regulatory phosphatase Cdc25C, but they can also promote the nuclear localization of other partners, such as the catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT). In some cases, 14-3-3 binding has no effect on the subcellular localization of a partner. 14-3-3 may affect the localization of a protein by interfering with the function of a nearby targeting sequence, such as a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a nuclear export sequence (NES), on the binding partner.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Animals
  • Binding, Competitive
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Cyclin B / metabolism
  • Cyclin B1
  • Cytoplasm / metabolism*
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Protein Transport
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / metabolism*
  • bcl-Associated Death Protein
  • ras-GRF1 / metabolism


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cyclin B
  • Cyclin B1
  • Transcription Factors
  • bcl-Associated Death Protein
  • ras-GRF1
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • Protein Kinases
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase