Objectives: The study was done to determine whether the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene increases the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), both alone and in combination with factor V Leiden.
Background: Several inherited defects of coagulation are associated with increased risk of first VTE, including a recently identified G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene. However, whether the presence of this mutation confers an increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism is controversial.
Methods: A total of 218 men with incident venous thromboembolism were genotyped for the prothrombin mutation and for factor V Leiden and were followed prospectively for recurrent VTE over a follow-up period of 7.3 years.
Results: A total of 29 men (13.3%) suffered recurrent VTE. Five of the 14 carriers of the prothrombin mutation developed recurrent VTE (35.7%; incidence rate = 8.70 per 100 person-years), while 24 of 204 individuals who did not carry the prothrombin mutation developed recurrent VTE (11.8%; incidence rate = 1.76 per 100 person-years). Thus, presence of the G20210A mutation was associated with an approximate fivefold increased risk for recurrent VTE (crude relative risk [RR] 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.9; p = 0.001; age-, smoking-, and body mass index-adjusted RR 5.28; 95% CI 2.0-14.0; p = 0.001). In these data, recurrence rates were similar among those with an isolated mutation in the prothrombin gene (18.2%) as compared to those with an isolated factor V Leiden mutation (19.2%). However, all three study participants who carried both mutations (100%) suffered a recurrent event during follow-up.
Conclusions: In a prospective evaluation of 218 men, the presence ofprothrombin mutation was associated with a significantly increased risk of recurrent VTE, particularly among those who co-inherited factor V Leiden.