Double stenting for esophageal and tracheobronchial stenoses

Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Dec;70(6):1803-7. doi: 10.1016/s0003-4975(00)02042-7.


Background: We examined the complications and outcomes of placing stents for both esophageal and tracheobronchial stenoses.

Methods: We placed stents for both esophageal and tracheobronchial stenoses in 8 patients (7 with esophageal cancer and 1 with lung cancer). Covered or noncovered metallic stents were used for the esophageal stenoses, except in 1 patient treated with a silicone stent. Silicone stents were used for the tracheobronchial stenoses. The grades of esophageal and tracheobronchial stenoses were scored.

Results: All patients experienced improvement of grades of both dysphagia and respiratory symptoms after stent therapy. The complications were: (1) 2 patients suffered respiratory distress after placement of the esophageal stent because of compression of the trachea by the stent; and (2) 3 patients developed new esophago-tracheobronchial fistulae, and 2 patients had recurring fistula symptoms because of growth of preexisting fistulae after the stent placement, which were caused by pressure from the 2 stents. Despite the fistulae, the 5 patients treated with covered metallic stents did not complain of fistula symptoms, but 2 patients treated with noncovered metallic or silicone stents did complain.

Conclusions: For patients with both esophageal and tracheobronchial stenoses, a stent should be introduced into the tracheobronchus first. Because placement of stents in both the esophagus and tracheobronchus has a high risk of enlargement of the fistula, a covered metallic stent is preferable for esophageal cancer involving the tracheobronchus.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Airway Obstruction / etiology
  • Airway Obstruction / therapy*
  • Bronchial Diseases / etiology
  • Bronchial Diseases / therapy*
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Deglutition Disorders / etiology
  • Deglutition Disorders / therapy*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Esophageal Stenosis / etiology
  • Esophageal Stenosis / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metals
  • Middle Aged
  • Palliative Care
  • Silicones
  • Stents*
  • Tracheal Stenosis / etiology
  • Tracheal Stenosis / therapy*
  • Tracheoesophageal Fistula / etiology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Metals
  • Silicones