Familial aggregation of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Qc by CO2 rebreathing) at 50 Watts (W) and 60 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as their changes in response to a 20-week endurance exercise training program was assessed in 99 Caucasian families who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. In order to interpret familial influences independent of effects of age, sex, and body size (indexed by body surface area here), SV and Qc levels were adjusted for these primary parameters prior to genetic analysis within four sex-by-generation groups (the responses to training were additionally adjusted for their baseline values). Maximal heritabilities for baseline SV, Qc, and their changes in response to training during the two stages of submaximal exercise were estimated using a familial correlation model. At 50W, maximal heritabilities reached 41% and 42% for baseline SV and Qc, respectively, and were 29% and 38% for the respective responses to training. At 60% of VO2max, maximal heritabilities reached 46 % for baseline SV and Qc, and were 24% and 30% for the respective responses to training. Generally there were no meaningful differences between the maximal heritabilities at 50 W and 60% of VO2max. However, the maximal heritabilities for the baseline were slightly higher than the estimates for the changes in response to training. Based upon results arising from these non-obese, non-hypertensive, and sedentary families, we found that SV and Qc at 50 W and 60% of VO2max as well as their changes in response to the 20-week endurance exercise training were moderately heritable. Not only genetic determinants but also familial non-genetic factors might attribute to the observed patterns of familial aggregation of SV and Qc during submaximal exercise in the present study.