Comparison of the effects of nitric oxide, nitroprusside, and nifedipine on hemodynamics and right ventricular contractility in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension

Chest. 2001 Jan;119(1):128-36. doi: 10.1378/chest.119.1.128.

Abstract

Study objectives: The effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on hemodynamics and right ventricular (RV) contractility were compared with those of nitroprusside and nifedipine in 14 patients with severe chronic pulmonary hypertension.

Study design: Micromanometer and balloon-tipped right heart catheterization were performed. Inhaled NO, IV nitroprusside, and sublingual nifedipine were administered sequentially while patients breathed > 90% oxygen.

Setting: Cardiac catheterization laboratory in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

Patients: Fourteen patients with severe pulmonary hypertension unrelated to left ventricular dysfunction.

Measurements and results: During NO inhalation, mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP) was unchanged, but pulmonary artery (PA) pressure ([mean +/- SEM] 49 +/- 2 mm Hg vs 44 +/- 2 mm Hg; p < 0.01), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; 829 +/- 68 vs 669 +/- 64 dyne x s x cm(-5); p < 0.01) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; 12 +/- 1 vs 10 +/- 1 mm Hg; p < 0.01) decreased. Stroke volume index (SVI; 31 +/- 2 vs 35 +/- 3 mL/m(2); p < 0.05) increased, and the first derivative of RV pressure at 15 mm Hg developed pressure (RV +dP/dt at DP15) was unchanged. During nitroprusside administration, MAP decreased (105 +/- 5 vs 76 +/- 5 mm Hg; p < 0.01), PA was unchanged (48 +/- 2 vs 45 +/- 3 mm Hg; p = not significant), and PVR decreased (791 +/- 53 vs 665 +/- 53 dyne x s x cm(-5); p < 0.01). RV +dP/dt at DP15 increased (425 +/- 22 vs 465 +/- 29 mm Hg/s; p < 0.05), but SVI was unchanged. Nifedipine decreased MAP (103 +/- 5 vs 94 +/- 5 mm Hg; p < 0.01), PA and PVR were unchanged, RVEDP increased (12 +/- 1 vs 14 +/- 2 mm Hg; p < 0.01), and RV +dP/dt at DP15 decreased (432 +/- 90 vs 389 +/- 21 mm Hg/s; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Inhaled NO is a selective pulmonary vasodilator in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension that improves cardiac performance without altering RV contractility. Nitroprusside caused a similar degree of pulmonary vasodilation. In contrast to inhaled NO, nitroprusside caused systemic hypotension associated with an increase in RV contractility. Acute administration of nifedipine did not cause pulmonary vasodilation, but RVEDP increased and RV contractility decreased.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Administration, Sublingual
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects*
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / physiopathology
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Contraction / drug effects*
  • Myocardial Contraction / physiology
  • Nifedipine / administration & dosage*
  • Nitric Oxide / administration & dosage*
  • Nitroprusside / administration & dosage*
  • Pulmonary Wedge Pressure / drug effects
  • Pulmonary Wedge Pressure / physiology
  • Vasodilation / drug effects
  • Vasodilation / physiology
  • Ventricular Function, Right / drug effects*
  • Ventricular Function, Right / physiology

Substances

  • Nitroprusside
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nifedipine